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Many countries have now submitted their updated National Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the UN in line with the 2020 deadline[1].These documents are public commitments, and follow a relatively fixed format, which makes them comparable at international level. But they also represent the outcome of a national process. In some cases, the process to create and update the NDCs has been participatory and inclusive of a wide range of stakeholders, but in others the process has been less inclusive. With weak participation by civil society and other stakeholders, there may be:

    • Less ownership for, or awareness of the NDC commitments from stakeholders across society. - Risky or far-reaching plans being included in the NDC (such as land-intensive carbon-offset projects or massive transformation of food, agriculture, and energy sectors) without considering the impacts on affected sectors. - Commitments on mitigation or adaptation which fall short of the civil society demands for climate justice - Failure to credibly consider and address gender, ethnicity, regions, conflict dynamics etc. - Plans which are inadequately costed; or where the international finance needed (vs. domestic finance) is not indicated.

Exclusion from the NDC process endangers parts of the population who are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, but who may remain unsupported, for instance, in terms of climate adaptation plans. It is therefore important to understand how inclusive NDC processes have been, and important questions remain about whether the quality of national climate responses can be improved through empowering understanding and engagement in NDCs by civil society, and by women, youth and indigenous peoples.


The primary audience for this research is Oxfam as well as civil society, including partners of Oxfam, governments updating or implementing their NDCs, experts who are assisting governments with their NDC, donors who are providing climate finance to support conditional financial needs expressed in NDCs, policy makers and influencers.


A literature review to assess what is already published on the participatory nature of NDC processes in Kenya in order to:

  • To get a more detailed picture of how participatory and inclusive NDCs have been developed in Kenya
  • To determine if lack of participation by civil society has been a widespread problem in the way NDCs have been prepared, and to understand the implications of this.

Why now? In 2023 NDCs will be looked at in the Global Stocktake, a process under which all progress toward UN climate change targets is to be considered. That makes 2023 an opportune moment to consider how well owned and rooted the NDCs are at national level, and to push for improvements.


NDCs are failing to be genuinely inclusive. We need to convene and empower a wide range of CSO actors in developing countries (e.g., women’s rights orgs, land rights movements, indigenous peoples, farmer organizations, journalist networks etc.) to engage more deeply in the development, implementation and monitoring of national climate plans (which, through NDCs, are formal government commitments under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement).


The paper assesses the inclusiveness of NDCs, and the research will consider the extent to which women’s rights organizations have been invited or involved in the NDC process.


Proposed Study methodology

The consultant will be expected to undertake a qualitative methodology focusing on desktop research and Key Informant Interviews with the relevant stakeholders and Focus Group Discussions with women, youth and indigenous peoples. The final methodology will be agreed upon with Oxfam and the consultant at inception phase.

Gender Sensitive methodology: The consultant will adopt gender equality principles that will aim to address any gender biases that may arise during the study.

Data collection tools and Instruments: The identified consultant will develop relevant data collection tools and identify the appropriate means for collecting the data which will be discussed and agreed with, prior to the data collection exercise.

The data will be analysed using appropriate data analysis packages. The data should be presented in a logical, meaningful, reader friendly and simple language on a date agreed with Oxfam.

Ethical Considerations: The consultant will put in place measures to ensure data collection adheres to all necessary ethics and guidelines provided by local laws on data protection, the GDPR and ethics standards.

Research Principles and Approach: The research approach will be informed by a feminist participatory action research model. Grounded in principles of empowerment, accountability, respect and transparency.


Output 1: The consulting firm/bidder will submit a comprehensive research report in both electronic version and signed hard copy. The document should be very precise and address each specific objective.

The consulting firm/bidder will submit the following:

  1. Inception report on the execution of the assignment within five days of the commencement of the consultancy; setting out how they will approach the assignment, proposed methodology and timetable and data collection tool
  2. Share transcripts with Oxfam and agree on the final discussion/Interview guide that includes signed consent forms from the Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussions, with detailed understanding of their data rights as per the General Data Protection Regulations (2016).
  3. Draft comprehensive research report which should include at least the following:
  • Executive summary (2-3 pages)
  • Introduction
  • Purpose and objectives
  • Methodology
  • Findings
  • Conclusion and recommendations

Output 2: The consulting firm/bidder will produce a database for the key Informants Interviewed and Focus Group Discussions with communities (women, youth and indigenous people) and deliver with draft assessment report.

Output 3: The consulting firm/bidder will deliver a high-quality Power-Point presentation of the report before finalizing the assignment.

Output 4: Facilitate a stakeholder validation workshop to receive input and feedback from Oxfam.

Output 5: Final report, incorporating Oxfam’s, partners’, and stakeholders’ input, completed after input is received.

The written report will be:

    • Produced in English language and using accessible and concise language. - The report format and text shall be in A4 paper size and a legible Arial 12 font size.
  • The research report should not be more than 8000 words
    • At least one signed hard copy and one electronic copy by the agreed deadline.


The desired specification and qualities of the consultant(s) are as hereunder:

  • At least 5 years of experience in conducting comprehensive studies or assessments on various aspects, preferably in related climate governance and NDC processes using advanced research methodologies.
  • Knowledge and experience in climate change and governance issues and environmental management.
  • At least a master’s degree in Social Sciences (Climate Change or Natural Resources Governance would be an added advantage) for the lead consultant and a minimum of bachelor’s degree on the relevant academic areas for research assistants will be an added advantage.
  • Demonstrated experience in conducting climate governance studies.
  • Experience of effective interaction with private and national institutions, both government and financial on climate governance issues.
  • Be conversant with current Climate Change laws, policies, and practice in Kenya.
  • Practical application of cross cutting themes like gender mainstreaming M&E, Advocacy.
  • Excellent report writing qualitative data collection and analytical skills.
  • Experience in working with international and national organizations to work within limited time frame
  • In-depth knowledge and experience on using participatory research methods (, key informant interviews and focus group discussions).

Confidentiality of information: All documents and data collected will be treated as confidential and used solely to facilitate analysis. Interviewees will not be quoted in the reports without their permission.


The process will be as follows:

The total study period is 25 days that include preparation, data analysis and report writing. The expected date of the start of the study is 1st June 2023 and NDC’s study report will be produced on 25th June 2023.


Oxfam will deduct withholding tax from the consultancy fees which will be in conformity with the prevailing government rates and submit the same to the Government of Kenya.


Consultant(s) who meet the above requirements should submit bids, which at minimum include the following:

  • Suitability statement, including commitment to availability for the entire assignment in the months – May 2023 – July 2023.
  • Brief statement of the proposed study methodology including a detailed work plan.
  • Detailed financial proposal, including daily costs.
  • Information on the team composition and level of effort of each team member – include updated curriculum vitae that clearly spell out qualifications and experience.
  • Contacts of three organizations that have recently contracted the consultant to carry out relevant study.
  • Budget financial proposal must indicate all-inclusive costs for conducting the survey.

N/B: The entire bid should be a MAXIMUM OF TEN (10) PAGES inclusive of CVs and Budgets. Bids not meeting this requirement will not be considered.


The consultant shall work under the supervision of the Oxfam’s MEAL Advisor with a strong liaison with the Extractives Strategist and Programme Officer.

How to apply

Oxfam Kenya invites individuals who meet the criteria to submit Expression of Interest that clearly articulates the consultant(s) understanding of the terms of reference, methodology for executing the work including key deliverables and tentative budget should and clearly indicated “People’s NDCS? Experiences of Civil Society Involvement in National Climate Plans – The Case Of Kenya*”* Expression of Interests shall be sent to kpconsultancyservices@oxfam.org.uk no later than close of business on 26TH May 2023. Only applicants who qualify will be contacted.